Monday, August 19, 1996
Juvenile goatfish, called oama,
are good to eat or use as bait
Last weekend, while visiting my sailboat in the Ala Wai
Boat Harbor, I saw a group of fishermen standing around in knee deep
water. Each held a small fishing pole which he jerked up and down with
great concentration. When I looked into the nets fastened to the men's
waists, I saw dozens of silvery little oama.
Oama are juveniles (7 inches or less) of the goatfish
known in Hawaii as weke.
Weke have one or more stripes running the entire length
of the fish's body. Four of Hawaii's nine native species of goatfish are
called weke, some with variations such as weke'a, weke-ula, or weke pueo.
Common English names for weke are white goatfish, yellow goatfish, orange
goatfish and bandtail goatfish.
Weke are mostly inshore fish but newly hatched weke
head offshore to feed on plankton. When the fry are 3-4 inches long, they
cruise back in schools, usually in August, searching for shrimp, worms and
other invertebrates along sandy bottoms.
Goatfish search for food by stirring up the sand with
wiggly chin whiskers called barbels. Goatfish get their name from these
chin whiskers, which leave little puffs of sand clouds in the fishes'
Since the fish taste their food first with their
barbels, alert anglers can sometimes hook oama under their chins rather
than in the mouths. Oama are crazy for shrimp, a common bait, but also
bite on pieces of fish flesh, including other oama. Each angler can keep
50 oama per day.
Anglers like to catch these small goatfish for several
purposes. One is to use them as bait for catching papio (young ulua or
jacks), which come inshore during this time to feed on oama. One fisherman
told me oama is the master bait for papio, but the oama must be kept
Others prefer to eat their oama. Another fisherman told
me that you scale the fresh fish, remove the entrails and gills, dip the
fish into your favorite batter, then fry with the heads on.
Some people eat oama raw after salting them.
No illnesses have been reported from eating oama, but
the same is not true of some adult weke. Weke'a, weke pueo and some
mullets have been implicated in a poisoning that causes temporary illness
This poisoning is relatively rare. In 1994, three cases
were reported; 1995 had only one case; 1996 has had two cases so far.
Hallucinatory fish poisoning is most common in the summer months,
occurring in fish caught near Molokai, Kauai and Oahu.
No one knows why this poisoning occurs, but the toxin
appears to be concentrated in the heads.
To be safe, don't eat the heads of mullet and weke
caught near Molokai, Kauai or Oahu in June, July or August.
Symptoms develop in five to 90 minutes. These are
tingling around the mouth, sweating, weakness, hallucinations and chest
tightness. The toxin affects some individuals during sleep, producing
vivid nightmares. Because of this, some call the band-tailed goatfish
"the nightmare weke." Hawaiians called this same fish weke
pahulu (chief of the ghosts).
Victims hallucinating, or extremely depressed, should
go to an emergency facility for help. Others should remain calm and wait
until symptoms disappear, usually overnight.
Save any remaining fish for analysis. Report all cases
to the State Department of Health.